This module on ‘Pathogenesis of COPD, clinical symptoms, and clinical history and risk factors’, highlights three focus areas. The first focus area on the pathogenesis of COPD covers the respiratory physiology in COPD, its pathology, the inflammatory mechanisms in COPD, and the pathophysiology of COPD. Subsequently, the second focus area highlights the clinical symptoms of COPD and its manifestations, while the third focus area on the clinical history and risk history covers the clinical history of COPD, its risk factors, its prognostic factors, and the differential diagnosis of COPD.
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