This module on ‘Comorbidities and treatment-related adverse events in COPD and palliative care in advanced COPD’, highlights three focus areas. The first focus area covers the various comorbidities of COPD such as lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, depression/anxiety, obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity/metabolic syndrome, malnutrition/anaemia, and gastroesophageal reflux. Subsequently, the second focus area highlights treatment-related adverse events in COPD, while the third focus area covers palliative care as an unmet need in COPD, barriers to providing palliative care, triggers of palliative care, palliative care and management of troublesome symptoms in COPD, proactive palliative care, and primary palliative care.
This module on ‘Monitoring, follow-up and non-pharmacological treatments in COPD’, highlights two focus areas. The first focus area on monitoring and follow-up, covers monitoring and assessment of disease progression, pharmacotherapy and other medical treatments, and development of complication and/or comorbidities. Subsequently, the second focus area highlights non-pharmacological treatment in COPD such as education and self-management, physical activity, pulmonary rehabilitation programmes, exercise training, vaccination, oxygen therapy, nutritional support, interventional bronchoscopy and surgery, and end of life and palliative care.
This module on ‘Guideline-based COPD algorithm, COPD exacerbations: Treatment in primary care and use of inhalers’, highlights three focus areas. The first focus area on guideline-based COPD algorithm, covers COPD medications available at Klinik Kesihatan, ICS treatment considerations, ICS recommendations, and referral for specialist. Subsequently, the second focus area on COPD exacerbations: treatment in primary care, highlights exacerbations presented at primary care, criteria for referral to hospital, ICU criteria, clinical examination of COPD, treatment algorithm, and post-discharge care. Lastly, the third focus area emphasizes on the importance of inhaler technique, types of inhalers, and inhalers available in Ministry of Health formulary.
This module on ‘Investigations in COPD, overview of COPD treatment and guidance-based COPD algorithm’, highlights three focus areas. The first focus area on investigations in COPD, covers laboratory and potential markers of COPD, exacerbation frequency, spirometry, and classical radiological features of COPD. Subsequently, the second focus area on overview of COPD treatment, highlights the goals of COPD treatment, drug classification, vaccination, preventive therapies for exacerbations, importance of long-acting bronchodilators, as well as the various COPD therapies. Finally, the third focus area on guideline-based COPD algorithm, emphasizes on initial pharmacological treatment, COPD management, hospital management, and follow-up management principle.
This module on ‘Clinical examinations in COPD and COPD exacerbations’, highlights two focus areas; firstly, clinical examinations associated with COPD, covering the types of examinations and investigations performed. Secondly, this module also provides an overview of COPD exacerbations, covering its pathophysiology, causes, clinical presentation, hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD, as well the management and impact of COPD exacerbations.
This module on ‘Pathogenesis of COPD, clinical symptoms, and clinical history and risk factors’, highlights three focus areas. The first focus area on the pathogenesis of COPD covers the respiratory physiology in COPD, its pathology, the inflammatory mechanisms in COPD, and the pathophysiology of COPD. Subsequently, the second focus area highlights the clinical symptoms of COPD and its manifestations, while the third focus area on the clinical history and risk history covers the clinical history of COPD, its risk factors, its prognostic factors, and the differential diagnosis of COPD.